Commonly Used Components on PCBs for Beginners

By Harshvardhan Mishra Feb 14, 2024
Commonly Used Components on PCBs for BeginnersCommonly Used Components on PCBs for Beginners


Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are an essential part of modern electronic devices. They provide a platform for connecting and supporting various electronic components. Understanding the commonly used components on PCBs is crucial for beginners who are just starting their journey in electronics. In this article, we will explore some of these components and their functions.


Resistors are one of the most commonly used components on PCBs. They are passive electronic components that limit the flow of electric current in a circuit. Resistors are used for various purposes, such as voltage division, current limiting, and signal conditioning. They are color-coded to indicate their resistance value. Beginners should familiarize themselves with the color code chart to identify the resistance value of a resistor.


Capacitors store and release electrical energy. They are used in PCBs for various purposes, including energy storage, noise filtering, and decoupling. Capacitors come in different types, such as ceramic, electrolytic, and tantalum. Each type has its own characteristics and is suitable for different applications. Beginners should understand the capacitance value and voltage rating of capacitors to choose the right one for their circuit.


Diodes are electronic components that allow current to flow in one direction while blocking it in the opposite direction. They are commonly used for rectification, voltage regulation, and signal modulation. There are different types of diodes, including the popular rectifier diode, light-emitting diode (LED), and zener diode. Beginners should learn about the diode’s forward voltage drop and maximum current rating to ensure proper usage.


Transistors are active electronic components that amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. They are widely used in amplifiers, oscillators, and digital logic circuits. There are two main types of transistors: bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and field-effect transistors (FETs). Beginners should understand the transistor’s pin configuration, gain characteristics, and maximum power dissipation to utilize them effectively.

Integrated Circuits (ICs)

Integrated Circuits, or ICs, are complex electronic components that contain multiple transistors, resistors, capacitors, and other components on a single chip. They are used in a wide range of applications, including microprocessors, memory chips, and communication devices. Beginners should familiarize themselves with the IC’s pinout diagram and datasheet to understand its functionality and proper connections.


Inductors store energy in a magnetic field and are used in PCBs for applications such as filtering, energy storage, and impedance matching. They are commonly found in power supplies, audio circuits, and radio frequency (RF) circuits. Beginners should understand the inductor’s inductance value, current rating, and self-resonant frequency to choose the right one for their circuit.


Connectors are used to establish electrical and mechanical connections between different components on a PCB. They come in various types, such as headers, sockets, and terminal blocks. Connectors are essential for easy assembly, maintenance, and expansion of electronic devices. Beginners should learn about the connector’s pin configuration, current rating, and mating cycle durability to ensure reliable connections.


Understanding the commonly used components on PCBs is essential for beginners in electronics. This knowledge will help them design, build, and troubleshoot electronic circuits effectively. In this article, we have explored some of the commonly used components, including resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, ICs, inductors, and connectors. By familiarizing themselves with these components and their functions, beginners can take their first steps towards becoming proficient in electronics.

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