Introduction to Internet of Things(IOT) | Part-1

Introduction to Internet of Things(IOT) | Part-1

22 June 2023 2 By Anshul Pal

In this tutorial we are going to discuss the IOT(internet of things) world. You already hear this word many times from the mouths of different people. So, if you are confused about IOT, I ensure you that by reading this article you have a little bit of idea about the internet of things and how it works.

Topics we discussed in this article.

  • What is IOT?
  • How does it work & its components?
  • Examples of IoT devices
  • Role of IoT in Smart Cities

What is IOT ?

IOT stands for Internet of Things. In simple words we can say the term IoT is defines as a virtual connection with physical objects. If you are able to control your physical object with the help of the internet, it is not wrong to say that this is IOT. It provides IP connectivity to various things apart from general Laptops, Desktops and Mobile Devices. This technology helps with the sharing and collection of data from a vast network of devices, creating opportunities for more efficient and automated systems.

The term things defines any physical parameter that can be sensed and connected to the Internet. Nowadays, over 15.14 billion ‘things’ (physical objects) are currently connected to the Internet, but in the future, this number is expected to be around 22 billion by 2025. IoT is a connection between the physical and cyber worlds and M2M(machine to machine) communication without human interference.

Example – A lightbulb or fan in your home that can be switched on/off using a smartphone app is an IoT device.

How does IOT work ?

IoT is a group of web-enabled smart devices  that use embedded systems such as sensors, processors and communication hardware which help to collect and send data from their environments.

IoT work like this :- 

  • Hardware devices like sensors that are used to collect data.
  • The data which is collected by the sensors will be shared via the cloud and  combined with the software.
  • After that, software analyzes the data and transfers the data to the user via any app or website.

Internet of Things

In the above image you can see the four components of IoT. Now we are discussing how they work.

IOT Components

  1. Sensors/Devices:- Sensor devices are the first component that helps us to collect live data from the surrounding environment. Sensors are hardware components that can detect events or changes in their surroundings, and after that generate a corresponding output. Devices have various types of sensors which are used for  different tasks according to our needs.
  2. Connectivity:- In our first step, we collect the data but now we need a mode to transfer or send this data to another. So we connect sensors to the cloud to transfer the data in  different modes, such as –  Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, cellular networks, satellite networks, WAN(wide area network) or many more.
  3. Data Processing:- when the whole data is collected and gets to the cloud,  after that, software performs some processing on it which is very simple, such as checking the temperature, reading on devices like AC or heaters. And sometimes it could be very complex, like identifying objects, using computer vision on video.
  4. User Interface:- Now it is a very important stage to give output to the user and it is known as the last stage. In this stage, the user can directly contact and see their output on their screen. According to their needs and purposes, every iot device has its own unique interfaces.


Examples of IOT devices

In this example we are discussing how the smart car functionality works and how we remotely control our smart car from any corner in the world with the help of the internet.

A smart car contains sensors which help them to sense the things or objects around the car so that the car can easily know its position and is able to be safe from them. We connect our car to the internet so that we easily unlock our car and know the live location by using GPS and, by the help of sensors or technology, we drive the car in driverless mode.

Read more about : Car automation

IoT has made a huge impact on the agriculture industry because of its higher gains, lower costs and easy management. A lot of these techniques are currently being used in farms that generate huge produce. Smaller farms are yet to be introduced with the IoT technology.

Role of IOT in Smart Cities

In future or recent times, we can see that IOT plays a huge role in creating smart cities. IoT technologies put infrastructure at the next level. We can operate cities in a smart way with the help of IOT technology.

Some key points of Smart Cities:-

  1. Smart Parking : As you see in our normal cities, it is a very time-consuming process. It wastes hours of time. We don’t have any idea about where we found a parking zone or how much space is available there. Sometimes we reach our location, but in searching for a parking spot we waste lots of our time, but NB-IoT is a suitable technology for smart parking in cities, which can help realize the reservation and sharing of idle parking space.
  2. Street-lighting : In cities, industries and public organizations, we always want to reduce high energy and lighting costs by replacing the street-lighting infrastructure because it consumes more energy. Smart lighting control is a technology of iot devices which can  save real financial savings  by embedding intelligence and connectivity into everyday objects. It makes outdoor lighting more convenient, safe and affordable with open-standard control networking technology.
  3. Smart Environment Monitoring : We use sensors around the whole city to continuously monitor air quality, temperature, humidity, electromagnetic field, toxic gases, and various other environmental conditions which are mandatory to keep our environmental parameters better. IoT is empowering cities to respond quickly to demographic and economic shifts. It connects devices, vehicles and infrastructure everywhere in a city and makes it safer, smarter and operated more efficiently.

Learn more about Internet of Things – IoT Tutorial Part-1 | IoT Basics

Thanks for reading. We hope that you like this post. If you have any queries related to this article, leave a comment down below!